レジリエントな地域社会の実現のための 通訳型リーダーの役割と課題 —生活環境主義の視点から—レジリエントな地域社会の実現のための 通訳型リーダーの役割と課題 —生活環境主義の視点から— Roles and Tasks of a Translational Leader to Create a Resilient Community: From the View of Living Environmentalism
It is said that creating a resilient community is one of the important tasks after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Resilience is the ability of a system to absorb change and disturbance and still maintain the same relationships between populations or state variables. The purpose of this paper is to consider how to create a resilient community focusing on functions of a leader of community from the view of sociology of environment. According to Andrew Zolli and Ann Marie Healy, leaders of communities often play a great role to build, maintain, and strengthen resilience. They say resilient communities rely on informal network, rooted in deep trust in many cases. They also found a very particular species of leader at the core of a resilient community, referring to a network theory proposed by Valdis Krebs and June Holley. Krebs and Holley mention a weaver of a network is necessary to create a resilient system. Zolli and Healy call such a person a translational leader. He/she plays important roles such as connecting constituencies, weaving various networks, perspectives and knowledge systems, and so on. How can a translational leader play his/her roles? Necessary conditions to achieve it will be various because of a diversity of characters of communities. Therefore sociological views to analyze and compare characters of communities will be useful. Living environmentalism is a methodology of sociology of environment. Living environmentalists mainly focus on lifestyles of people in relation to their attitudes toward nature and traditions in the concerned community. This approach enables sociologists to analyze the patterns of behaviors and decision-makings of people. Moreover, it also shows backgrounds of decisionmakings are various. For example, people make a decision based on not only rationality but also solidarity. However, a view of living environmentalism also should be relativized in some ways. Focusing on attitudes of people toward nature and traditions does not necessarily mean researchers should make much of their present perspectives uncritically. How were their perspectives formed? What were the factors ruling their perspectives? These questions are indispensable to rethink their truism. A review of living environmentalism is also important to consider a new situation after the Great East Japan Earthquake. The relationship among people and social norms can become unstable in such a terrible situation. Stability of daily life is usually maintained under a certain condition where people are not conscious of their attitudes toward nature and traditions. If the attitudes become conscious of them, their truism can be shaken. Existing methods may become useless in such a situation. As Krebs and Holley point out, outsiders play a great role to bring new ideas to people. Researchers such as sociologists of environment also may function as outsiders. They can support a process of decision-making by analyzing the present situation and its difficulties. Not only perspectives of people but also those of researchers will change through this process. Such a self-critical praxis is important to maintain dynamism of thinking, especially for a translational leader who plays a central role of decision-making and network-weaving to create a resilient community.