This paper revisits Antonio Gramsci’s proposed educational reform and examines how it tackles low social mobility in Italy. His plan to establish “unitary school” aims to address two problems that prolonged low mobility. One is to deal with the gap of cultural capital between the established elites and masses, as it makes prima facie meritocratic selection unfair, due to the difference of cultural and social resources between both strata. The second problem is that Italian educational institutions did not uphold any means to prevent reproduction of class, without encouraging upward social mobility. Gramsci’s proposed unitary school, first, aims to reduce the influence of cultural capital that students inherit from their family background, through college-style schooling run by governmental funding. Second, it endeavours to fix the separation of philosophical education and popular education, or the underlying division of manual and intellectual types of labour. Thirdly, it provides all students with education of classical languages such as Greek and Latin, in order that they may obtain proper discipline and intellectual ability regardless of their background.