Departmental Bulletin Paper 初代文部大臣森有礼におけるグローバリズムと国家主義

斉藤, 泰雄

(59)  , pp.149 - 157 , 2017-03-31 , 国際基督教大学 , International Christian University
本論は,1880 年代後半期に初代文部大臣として日本の近代教育制度の基本的骨格を樹立した森有礼の思想と政策を,かれの豊富な国際経験とグローバル感覚という視角から,あらためて見直すことを目的とする。初期留学生,外交官として長い海外生活を経験していた森は,弱小国日本の国力向上,国づくりのためには,国家的な教育制度の樹立が不可欠であると確信する熱烈な教育立国論者となっていた。維新以来の教育事業を整理し,体系的な教育システムに再編することを企てる。また,きびしい国際競争のなかで日本が生残り発展するためには,脆弱な国民気質の改善そのものが不可欠であるとして,国民の士気の向上,気力の鍛錬が国民教育の中心的目的であると力説した。国民の精神的支柱となるものを模索した森は,それを日本独特の天皇制の伝統に見いだした。しかし,森の功利主義的な天皇制への接近は,国粋主義者の疑念をまねくものとなった。In 1885, Mori Arinori was appointed to the minister of education under the newly-established cabinet system led by the prime minister Ito Hirobumi. Mori was the primary architect of the national education system. He was one of the Westernized intellectuals in the early period of Meiji era and had worked mainly for in the field of diplomacy. Through his suffering negotiation with the great powers, he had come to firmly confident of the importance of education for nation building. His experience and observation in the global context had a major effect on his educational philosophy and policy. He undertook to reorganize the educational efforts in the early stage of development and integrated into an entire education system. He stated that education was not for the sake of individuals but for the sake of state. He thought that in order to Japan survive and win in the increasing competitive world, it was essential to boost the morale of the Japanese people. To strengthen the mental backbone of the nation, he dared make the most of the authority of the age-honored Japanese imperial system. However, the conservative camp suspected his utilitarian approach to the imperial tradition. He was assassinated by a fanatic who insisted on his disrespectful act in the main shrine connected with the Imperial Household.

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