Departmental Bulletin Paper 初年次教育としての体育科教育がもたらす 心理・社会的効果の研究 -準実験的研究手法にもとづく授業効果の検証-

清水, 安夫  ,  山内, 宏志  ,  北見, 由奈  ,  八田, 直紀  ,  高橋, 伸

59pp.17 - 29 , 2017-03-31 , 国際基督教大学 , International Christian University
現代の日本の大学生は,集団への帰属意識,コミュニケーション・スキル,対人ストレスへの耐性が低下し,大学への適応に関する問題が増加している。そこで本研究では,初年次教育としての体育実技が必修科目として導入されている大学において,新入生を対象に開講している体育実技科目が,大学生の学校適応促進に貢献する可能性について検討を行った。調査の対象者は,コントロール群125 名(講義科目受講生:平均年齢19.9 歳,SD = 1.16)および体育授業参加群116 名(実技科目受講生:平均年齢18.6 歳,SD = 1.32)であった。測定指標として1 )身体活動評価尺度,2 )リーダーシップ評価尺度,3 )ストレス反応評価尺度, 4 )学校適応感尺度の4 つの測定指標を用いた。体育授業参加群の学生は,実技科目を1 学期間履修(全9 回開講)の期間中に,コミュニケーションと仲間づくりを意図した授業に参加した。一方,コントロール群の学生は,同時期に座学中心の講義授業を1 学期間履修した。両群の授業参加者とも,授業の初回と最終回の質問紙調査に回答した。回収した有効回答をもとに,二要因分散分析( 2 群× 2 時期)を行った結果,リーダーシップ性と身体活動に有意な交互作用が認められた。そのため,初年次教育としての体育実技の心理・社会・身体的な有効性が認められた。今後は,他の学年においても同様の効果が認められるのか等を検討する必要がある。Building interpersonal relationships is one of the fastest-growing problems among Japanese university students. Making friends is often difficult after the first few months of their freshman year, because in the first few months, many students become involved with one or more groups of friends—for instance, classmates in a language course or colleagues in an extracurricular club—to which they remain connected for the rest of their campus life. Students who fail to make social connections during this critical period may end up feeling isolated, disappointed, and apathetic toward others and jeopardixing even their academic performance. This study investigated the effectiveness of a series of targeted lessons within physical education courses in modifying freshman students’ social and communication skills, enhancing their adaptation to school, and reducing their stress response. The participants of this study comprised two groups: 116 freshmen [mean age = 18.6, standard deviation (SD) = 1.32] enrolled in a physical education course at their school and 125 freshmen (mean age = 19.9, SD = 1.16) attending one of the school’s Sport and Health Care courses serving as a control group. The participants in the physical education courses participated in group social skills and interpersonal communication training activities nine times during their first trimester, from April to June 2014. The lessons for the control group, occurring during the same time period, contained no such interpersonal training and were taught in the conventional lecture style. At the first and last class sessions, the participants in both groups were asked to answer a questionnaire composed of five types of questions: socio-demographic characteristics; the (frequency, intensity, and time) FIT index, measuring the levels of exercise by; and questions derived from the School Adaptation Scale (SAS), Stress Response Scale (SRS) and Social Skills Scale (SSS). A two-way repeated measures analysis of variance (experimental group/control group × pre-test/post-test) and Bonferroni’s post hoc tests were conducted on the FIT index, SAS, SRS, and SSS. The results indicated that the mean scores of the experimental group on the FIT index, the SAS, and a subscale of the SSS significantly increased between the pre-test and the post-test, whereas no comparable significant change was found in the mean scores of the control group. The findings of this study indicate that group activities promoting interpersonal communication skills and exercise behavior in physical education courses can have a positive impact on freshman students’ adaptation to their new environment as well as their physical activity habits. These results imply that providing social skills training for freshman students can prevent their maladaptation to their new campus life and that physical education courses can function effectively as a place to offer such training regularly within an existing curriculum. Further research is needed to investigate whether a similar degree of impact can be expected among sophomores, juniors, seniors, or students who already feel marginalized on campus.

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