Departmental Bulletin Paper 日・英語会話におけるトピックの発展と聞き手の役割
Topic Development and the Role of the Listener in English and Japanese Conversations

岩田, 祐子

30pp.1 - 16 , 2016 , International Christian University the Division of Languages
Personal narrative is ubiquitous.Ochs and Capps (2001) state "when people are together,they are inclined to talk about events - those they have heard or read about,those they have experienced directly,and those they imagine."Conversational narratives are neither planned in advance nor told only by the tellers.Storytelling "cannot be postulated a priori but emerge as a joint venture and as the outcome of negotiation by interlocutors"(Georgakopoulou,2007)Connected to these ideas,this study focuses on listener-involvement strategies to promote speakers to tell stories in English and Japanese conversations respectively.It also investigates how listeners try to elicit stories from speakers and how listeners jointly co-narrate stories with speakers.In the study,twenty,first-encounter conversations that took place between three male speakers in Japan,the United Kingdom,the United States,and Australia(five conversations in each country),were video-recorded,transcribed,and analyzed.Results reveal that topics are well developed in some conversations and less developed in others.As a result,conversation topics are frequently changed.This tendency is shown both in English and Japanese conversations.The detailed analysis indicates that when topics are well developed,listeners not only backchannel but also make predicting comments and ask questions to elicit more information from speakers. In addition, listeners sometimes take speakers' roles and tell second stories (Schegloff,1992)relating to the speakers' first stories.Consequently,speakers and listeners co-narrate stories and topics are well developed.On the other hand,when topics are not well developed, listeners tend to backchannel and ask clarification questions to encourage speakers to tell stories but they rarely ask questions to seek further information or tell second stories themselves.In these cases,topics are not well developed in either English or Japanese conversations.

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