環境運動におけるアニミズムの一つの機能 —D.W. ウィニコットの移行対象論を主に参照して—環境運動におけるアニミズムの一つの機能 —D.W. ウィニコットの移行対象論を主に参照して— A Function of Animism in Environmental Movements: Mainly Referring to D. W. Winnicott’s Theory of Transitional Objects
Kazuko Tsurumi, known as an advocate of endogenous development, saysthe basis of her research activities is a fieldwork in Minamata. She asserts thestruggle by the patients of Minamata disease was based on animism. The purposeof this paper is to consider the function of animism from the view of psychoanalysis,mainly referring to D. W. Winnicott’s theory of transitional objects.Animism is a faith not only human beings but also all the things in the worldhave spirits or souls. In the case of people in Minamata, their faith is formed asthe syncretization of Buddhism with animism or Christianity with that. Patients ofMinamata disease said their aim was to recover the pure land where all the thingshad lived with harmony. They tried to change the situation creatures as well ashuman beings suffered from the disease as a result of serious mercury pollution.According to Iwao Munakata, people in Minamata are usually unconscious oftheir animism in their daily life. They will become conscious of it in time of crisisand will become united based on it.Tsurumi says animism was a driving force of the struggle in Minamata. Sucha function is similar to that of transitional objects in psychoanalysis. Winnicottexplains these objects are the mediators for an infant to be separated from parents.A necessary condition to achieve the separation is to get the ability to bear thesituation the infant cannot be given what he/she wants immediately. He/shesymbolizes the situation with substitutes, which are called transitional objects.When he/she is separated from parents, the objects will become meaningless and be abandoned.The process of trial and error with transitional objects is also the process ofthe development of unconscious trust in others and the world. This trust is a basisof mental stability, which is named ontological security by Anthony Giddens.However, a person may lose the stability in time of crisis if the relationship withothers and the world becomes no longer self-evident. Transitional objects will bethe mediators he/she rebuilds the trust in others and the world in such an unstablesituation. A case study of that is children in the affected areas of the Great EastJapan Earthquake played at the terrible tsunami disaster. It is said this playfunctioned as a transitional object to rebuild their mental stability.A person with the trust in others and the world can be headed for his/her ideal,which is called metastasis, a necessary condition he/she reconsiders the truismself-critically. Psychoanalysis needs the driving forth to the ideal, because aperson without it cannot have a firm perspective that should be reconsidered. Inother words, the analysis without metastasis will end in failure. Similarly, thesituation people have lost the mental stability can be fatal to the environmentalmovements, because self-critical praxis among them based on the driving forth tothe ideal is necessary to achieve the better decision making in the process ofenvironmental movements. As Tsurumi and Munakata mentioned, animism canbe a mediator people in time of crisis can be headed for their ideal of the movementagain.