The Mutual Relationships between the Covenant Code,the Deuteronomic Code and the Holiness Codein their Historical Context The dating and the historical background of the Covenant Code (CC)are much debated. CC has long been regarded as the oldest law code inIsraelite history. However, in our view, it would be more appropriate torefrain from using labels such as J, E and JE for the characterization of thepre-priestly Tetrateuch and, accordingly, reconsider the dating andhistorical background of CC. Regarding the final stage of the composition,our contention is that CC derives from Judean society in Persian eraPalestine. The main purpose of this article is to indicate several pieces ofevidence that support this hypothesis. The biblical law codes each reflectthe specific perspectives of the communal networks in Judean society ofPersian era Palestine. Since no subgroup in Palestine occupied anoverpowering position, the law codes were simply juxtaposed, under thepolitical pressure of the Persian empire, in order to shape a document ofconsensus.