紀要論文 自然言語量化子を含む文の曖昧性について

水田, 洋子

57pp.91 - 98 , 2015-03-31 , 国際基督教大学
ISSN:0452-3318
内容記述
自然言語量化子を2つ以上含む文は,量化子のスコープの違いに起因する曖昧性を持つが,更なる曖昧性を持つ場合もある。本稿では,自然言語量化子 most および two を含む文 Most travelers visit two citiesとその受身形 Two cities are visited by most travelers の読みの非対称性を示し,議論する。Most ではなくall を使ったもの(All travelers visit two cities)では,能動形と受身形が同様の曖昧性を持ち,文の 2 つの意味は量化子(all とtwo)のスコープの曖昧性に帰着できる。しかし,mostを使ったものでは,受身形が更に第 3 の読みをもち,能動形と受身形の読みは非対称となる。それらの読みについて経験的および論理的な観点から議論する。また基本文のバリエーションについての考察および,日本語データとの対照考察も行う。Sentences with natural language quantifiers (e.g. every, all, most, two, a few) exhibit an ambiguity attributed to the scope ambiguity of the quantifiers used. However, the sentence may have further ambiguity.This paper investigates the readings of the pair Most travelers visit two cities and its passive version Two cities are visited by most travelers and shows the asymmetry between them. The version with all (i.e. All travelers visit two cities and its passive version) share the same ambiguity between the active and passive sentences, which is attributed to the scope ambiguity of the quantifiers all and two. In the case of the sentences in question, however, there is a third reading in the passive sentence. The details of the three readings and their distribution are investigated on empirical and logical bases. The paper also investigates several variations of the basic sentences (e.g. Most of the travelers visited two cities; Most travelers are attracted to two cities) and discusses the different distribution of the readings. Furthermore, a contrastive analysis with relevant Japanese data is conducted.
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