Departmental Bulletin Paper 総合的な学習の時間の行方

水口, 洋

57pp.35 - 45 , 2015-03-31 , 国際基督教大学
1980年代になると,校内暴力,いじめ,登校拒否などの日本の学校教育を巡る様々な問題が顕在化した。同時に急速な国際化と地球規模の課題に対して対応する思考力は,従来の知識注入型の系統学習では対応できなかった。文部科学省は新しい学力観に基づいた問題解決型の学習を模索して,「総合的な学習の時間」創設して,1998年の学習指導要領改定に際し小中高の授業の中に設定して,必須科目として義務付けた。しかし,「総合的な学習の時間」は,「ゆとり教育批判」の声と共に上級学校ほど現場には定着せず,経験学習は行き場を失ったように見受けられる。本来的には教育そのものの活性化につながるはずだった創造的授業の開発は,教師自らの「ゆとりのなさ」と経験の乏しさの中で衰退していった。モデルを示さないまま現場に任された創意工夫の義務付けは,戸惑いしか与えなかったからだ。しかし,国際化され価値観が多様な世界で,人々が共生してゆくためには,考える力を養成する「総合的な学習の時間」の持つ意味は大きい。その積極的な意義を明らかにしたい。In the 1980s, various issues arose in the Japanese educational environment, including school violence, bullying and truancy. At the same time, rapid internationalization and various global scale topics could not be dealt with using a “knowledge injection” type of traditional approach. In an attempt to resolve these in adequacies, the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture adapted a new educational “problem solving” approach by establishing class time for integrated study. The school curriculum was revised in 1998, and classes for integrated study were designated as mandatory and included in the new revised curriculum for elementary, junior high and high schools. However, in light of criticism of “pressure free education,” integrated lessons have not really taken hold in elementary and junior high schools, and experience based learning seems to have come to a dead end. The development of creative lessons, which was originally intended to energize the educational scene, withered under pressure on teachers, along with lack of experience on the part of teaching staff. Requiring creative ingenuity without the presentation of a clear model only led to confusion. However, the world has become increasingly internationalized and has a variety of value systems. In this light, order for people to coexist, education that includes integrated lessons that cultivate one’s ability to think is extremely meaningful. It is my intention in this paper to actively explore the potential of this type of learning.

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