Departmental Bulletin Paper 保健師の専門性の学びを深める選択実習の成果― 健康なまちビジョン、計画立案をとおして ―

吉田, 礼維子  ,  針金, 佳代子  ,  若山, 好美  ,  小澤, 涼子

保健師教育強化のために、健康なまちビジョンを作成し、地域看護活動計画を立案する選択実習を設定した。本研究の目的は、選択実習での学生の学びを明らかにし、その成果を確認することである。選択実習を履修した看護学科4 年次生10 名を対象にグループインタビューを実施し、質的に分析した。その結果、実習の受けとめ4 カテゴリー、地域看護過程展開プロセスからの学び6 カテゴリー、保健師の役割・機能からの学び5 カテゴリーが抽出された。学生はまちへの関心を深め主体的に取り組み、ニーズと事業の関連を理解し、保健師活動を実感していた。また、住民の声を活かしたまちビジョンの作成と計画立案の重要性、住民の主体性の尊重や適切な評価の難しさを学んでいた。学生は、保健師がライフステージをとおして健康課題をとらえ、予防活動を行い、地域にあった支援をコーディネートして、住民と行政の橋渡しとなっていることを学んでいた。選択実習は、地域に責任を持つ保健師の専門性の理解を深め、保健師活動の魅力を実感するという成果を得ていた。
To improve public health nursing education, optional practical training sessions were conducted to establish health-related goals for a town, and improve community health nursing practice. This study aimed to assess nurses' learning outcomes in optional practical training and examine their impact. Group interviews were conducted with 10 fourth-year university students who underwent optional practical training, and data were analyzed qualitatively. The analysis extracted four categories concerning changes in students’ perceptions of practical training, six categories concerning learning outcomes in the process of community health nursing practice, and five categories concerning learning outcomes with regard to their roles and responsibilities as public health nurses. After the training sessions, students showed a greater interest in their towns, carried out their practice proactively, understood the relationship between needs and services, and identified their roles as public health nurses. In addition, they learned (1) the importance of establishing health-related goals for towns and devising plans based on these goals while considering residents' opinions; (2) about the difficulties associated with respecting residents’ independence and performing appropriate evaluations; (3) and about the mediating role played by public health nurses between residents and administrative bodies in terms of helping both parties understand health issues related to different life stages, carrying out prevention activities, and coordinating with other health professionals to provide appropriate support to local communities. The results suggest that the optional practical training produced positive outcomes by helping public health nurses realize their responsibility toward local communities, deepening their understanding of expertise, and fostering appreciation of their roles as public health nurses.

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