Individual consciousness of social problems and behavior allows the society to progress in the desired direction. The purpose of this study is to compare the environmental consciousness between Iranian and Japanese university students, which is measured using the revised New Ecological Paradigm (NEP).The cross-national survey was conducted in Iran and Japan from October to November 2013. Respondents comprise 198 Iranian university students and 199 Japanese university students. The findings from the empirical analysis are as follows. (1) The distribution of environmental consciousness is different for Iranian and Japanese students. Iranian students possess a positive consciousness to develop and control nature. (2)Differences were also found in the structure of environmental consciousness between the students of the two countries. (3) In addition, the result of the analysis about the structure of environmental consciousness measured by the revised NEP scale used is quite different from the original theoretical assumptions. Only some factors show the one aspect that is assumed by revised NEP score.