This study aims to think about the modernization impact on camel breeding culture in the Sahara Desert and Central Asia. The camel has been an important animal for the desert people to get milk, meat, wool and working power. In the Sahara Desert, the Tuareg have lived with dromedary. The use for transportation is reduced; camel are now animals for tourism. While the Bactrian camel has been kept as working animal in Kazakhstan, the camel milk has recently come to highlighted as healthy drink; milk production became more important and the number of dromedary has increased. In the socialist time of the Soviet Union, the collective farm system dominated Camel breeding. Today, the breeding form of the camel is various: big ranching system considers as enterprise, private individual pasturing, breeding in small yards, and somehow traditional way. Various kinds of effect and change to which pastoral culture has been exposed with the modernization process are analyzed.