紀要論文 ポルトガル人デ= ヴィエイラと創建時ペテルブルク市のポリツァイ

田中, 良英

内容記述
 These days some researchers have underlined the legal, national and cultural diversities in the territories of the early modern European states using the concept of “conglomerate state.” Precisely for the variety, many rulers, especially in Central Europe after the second half of the 17th century, issued a lot of ordinances in order to police living conditions, behavior patterns and mentalities of the people (Polizeiordnung). According to M. Raeff, this ruling pattern was introduced into 18th-century Russia by the Petrine Reformation. This paper attempts to consider the historical significance of the policing orders under Peter I, mainly published by the first general police-master Anton De Vieira. He was likely from a Portuguese Jewish family and recruited into the Russian service by Peter I in 1697 or 1698. In May, 1718, probably on the grounds of personal closeness with De Vieira rather than his educational background and the experiences in his career, the Russian Tsar appointed him to the newly established post to control the inhabitants in St. Petersburg under construction. De Vieira passed them the Petrine decrees, which show some interesting features of the city. 1. Its living circumstances were wretched because of the cattle slaughtered in the forbidden places, the excreta of the carrying horses and the animals kept loose on the roads, or the illegally dumped wastes. 2. Many beggars and vagrants wandered around and some of them were arrested and sent to the compulsory works. 3. The government imposed several duties on the citizens, i. e., construction of their houses in a prescribed manner, cleaning of the neighboring streets, nightly patrol, fire extinction, payment of the taxes to light the public spaces, and so on. Although St. Petersburg was considered as a model city, the activities of the general police-master seem to suggest difficulties and congestion in policing the Russian society and people at that time. But for the purpose of judging more correctly the results of the ordinances of Peter I, we should compare them with the situations either in the later periods or in the different countries.
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