Departmental Bulletin Paper 18世紀前半のロシア地方における非ロシア人官吏

田中, 良英

 Among the Russian local administrators appointed as governors or voevodas from the 1710s to the 1730s there were several non-Russians. This paper attempts to clarify their features and the meaning of using them in the Russian state organs in the first half of the 18th century by analyzing their motivations to come to and to serve the Russian state and their career patterns. In these non-Russian servitors we can find largely two groups. One group consists of those from the Great Britain or the Ireland (many of them belong to the Jacobites) resulting from the political and religious conflicts in 17th- and 18th-century Britain. The other group includes the Germans either coming from the various areas in Central Europe or living in the Baltic regions. But within each category individual officials showed diverse relations with their native countries. For example, a Jacobite, Irishman General Lacy had served loyally in both the Russian army and the civil organs without involving himself in the political affairs. In contrast, even after moving to Russia, Scotchman General Keith kept in contact with the Jacobite movements in Western Europe. The connections of the non-Russian servitors with the Russian influential politicians were also multiform. As seen in the career of Prussian officer Bismarck, the patron-client relation made between him and the Empress Anna's favorite Buhren contributed both to his rapid promotion and to his sudden arrest in one of the court coup detats.

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