||Buddhistische Logik in Keiji Nishitanis Philosophie
54 , 2015-11 , 獨協大学国際教養学部言語文化学科
(Abstract): Sokuhi-logic and "un"-reality in the Philosophy of Keiji Nishitani Some worldviews that the natural sciences have given us point to the fact that our world of today can be observed to consist of lifeless matter. It is believed within the sphere of the natural sciences that life is composed of matter and even mind can be reduced to material processes. This surely means that the worldviews of today undergo a breakdown of teleological perspective, because such worldviews are based on refusal of the teleological perspective essential to religions and some idealistic philosophies. The negation of teleology leads to meaninglessness of everything in religious or idealistic worldviews, that is, to nihilism. The nihilism is nothing but manifestation of nihility and the nihility has put itself into an appearance here as meaninglessness of things in the world. In order to overcome the nihilism it is necessary for us to look beneath the surface of nihilistic phenomena. That is to say, we should notice that the nihility is only the foreground of śūnya. In the "place" of śūnya things in the world can be newly re-born by means of negating their old ways of being and re-negating their meaninglessness of their once negated modes of being again, that is, by means of changing their old meaning and positioning in the old world and gaining their new meaning and positioning in the rebirth of a new world. This faculty or function is ascribed to śūnya. This śūnya is a home ground of place in which everything can continue to absolutely negate itself. The modality of this continuum can be grasped with the aid of sokuhi-logic. The sokuhi-logic is derived from a Mahayana-Buddhist sutra, that is, Vajracchedikā-prajñāpāramitā-Sutra, by Teitaro Daisetz Suzuki. The logic has such a structure that one could not acknowledge when he would go only by the rules of traditional formal logic, and it says as follows: "The world is the world since the world is not the world" or, to put it simply in other words, “A is A since A is not A". This logic is, however, the key concept by means of which one can understand the reciprocal negation of absolute nothingness or śūnya. The structure of sokuhi-logic is mainly composed of two parts. The first part consists of the sentence "A is A" and it means the affirmation of "A" as a result of the second part of negation, "A is not A". This shows us that the reality of “A” is backed up by the affirmation and the negation of "A". This mode of being of "A” is expressed as "un"-reality. The "un"-reality has a meaning that the existence of "A” consists of reality (affirmation of "A") and, at the same time, unreality (negation of "A").