Departmental Bulletin Paper アジアの大規模災害被災地における身体障がい者の避難生活支援の実態調査―フィリピン・レイテ島のハイエン台風被害者―(2014年8月8―16日)
Field Research on Life Support System for Disabled Victims in Disaster- Stricken Areas in Asia --- Case of the Typhoon Haiyan's Victims in Leyte Island, Philippines

斉藤, くるみ  ,  西田, 昌之

主要な調査によると東日本大震災での障がい者の死亡率は健常者の二倍以上であった(Fujii 2015)。これは東日本大震災特異の現象なのか、それとも国際的にも同様の状況なのか調べるために、アジアの障がい者の防災・減災の協力ネットワークも構築しながら調査を始めた。本報告書は巨大台風ハイエンの被災地フィリピン、レイテ島での障がい者の状況を調査したものである。最大被災地タクロバン、カルバヨグでは、資料すら流され、障がい者の死亡人数なども把握することができない状況であったが、生き残った障がい者は、家族や親せきに依存して、立ち直りを目指していた。障がい者への公的な支援は欠落しているが、障がい者の国際団体の支援は大きかった。聴覚障害者の場合ろう学校やろうコミュニティーがあることも注目に値した。障がい者関係の団体・機関の国際的連帯もできつつあり、有力なリソースであることが明らかになった。
According to the major surveys, the mortality rate of disabled persons, during and after the Great East Japan Earthquake, is more than twice as high as that of non-disabled persons; the highest was hearing impaired persons. To answer the question whether this is a universal phenomenon or not, we conducted surveys in Asian disaster-stricken areas, building the network of disabled persons, and having college students including deaf students experience the communication barriers against foreigners. This is the report on the survey of hearing impaired, blind and physically disabled persons at Leyte which was affected by typhoon Yolanda in November 2013. The results indicate that they could hardly grasp the situation of disabled persons and international organizations including those of disabled persons made the new lists of the disabled persons in shelters. It became clear that disabled persons received little public support, and had difficulties in communication and in obtaining jobs. However, cooperation of the organizations of disabled persons, especially deaf schools and community, were functioning well. The problem is that, since they are supposed to be taken care of by families and relatives, which deprives of their sense of independence.

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