Departmental Bulletin Paper 重度な運動障害・言語障害のある人を社会的文脈で理解する:ライフチャート,ライフヒストリーを利用して
Understanding a Person with Severe Disabilities in Social Contexts:Using a Life Chart Method and Life History Method

伊藤, 直子  ,  小田原, 悦子

 近年500 g以下の低出生体重児など重い障害をもつ子どもたちの生存の可能性が高まり,彼らの社会参加,充実した生活への支援の必要性が議論される.しかし,彼らがどのように生活を経験し,将来を希望しているか理解することは,言語的,非言語的表出の困難やその経験の不足のために困難である.今後の重度障害児の支援の方向を探るために,自立生活を営む重度障害者F 氏のライフチャート,ライフストーリーを作成しその生活を社会的文脈で探索した.インタビューおよび手記や手紙のナラティブ(語り),さらに記録,記事をデータとし,Frank(1996)を参考に,F 氏が記述した文章,写真,出版物,両親の記録などから,F 氏のライフヒストリーを理解する.F 氏が出会った出来事をライフチャートに整理する.それを通して,F 氏の自立生活がどのように可能になったかを,生活の転換点(ターニングポイント)を探りながら理解した.F 氏の自立生活は①時代背景や社会環境,②コミュニケーション手段の発展と教育環境,③関わる人々の理解や扱いと大きく影響しあいながら,可能になったことが明らかになった.
 In recent years, we have a new issue regarding a healthy life for children with severe disabilities. The number of low-birth-weight newborns (i.e. < 500g) and their survival rate is growing. Supports are required for such babies to grow and to have a socially satisfying life; however, because of their verbal and/or nonverbal communication problems and the babies ongoing lack of life experience, it is hard for health professionals to understand how such babies experience life, and what hopes they or their families may have for their future. This is a qualitative study, the purpose of which was to investigate how a child with severe movement and communication problems lives life and finds direction to make a future. To build understand, I followed Mr. F, a 38 year old man with severe motor and communication disabilities, living an ‘independent life in a social context and create his “life chart”. I also investigated his life story to understand him as an occupational being. Using Frank (1996), I investigated F’s life history. Data was collected through interviewing, essays written by F, his photos, letters and public documentation. His life events were used to develop his life chart. I searched for his turning points in the process of his creating an independent life. Through my studies, I concluded that F’s independent life was constructed in mutual relation with,① Time background and the social environment of his life,② Development of communication technologies and the educational environment he had,③ Interactions with people, from his family to people in the ‘independent living’ movement abroad.

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