Departmental Bulletin Paper 日本における「人身取引」の問題化―「人身取引」概念の変遷を手がかりに―
Problematization of “Trafficking in Persons” in Japan: Focus on Conceptual Changes of Trafficking in Persons in National and International Contexts

大野, 聖良  ,  オオノ, セラ  ,  Sera, ONO

 2000年国連で「国際組織犯罪防止条約」および付属議定書のひとつである「人身取引議定書」が採択され、国際社会および各国政府は人身取引の廃絶に向けて取り組んでいる。日本では2004年から人身取引対策が講じられ、主に外国籍女性の強制売春に焦点が当てられてきた。しかし、近年その被害は多様化し、人身取引をめぐる議論は大きく変容している。 本稿では、現代日本社会における人身取引問題の様相を捉えるため、人身取引の用語と概念の変遷を検討し、日本社会における「人身取引」の問題化の過程を明らかにする。 まず、日本の議論に少なからず影響を与えてきた国際社会におけるtrafficking in personsの議論を検討し、20世紀初頭の“white slave”(白人奴隷)問題からはじまり、1970年代から1990年代の国連を中心とした女性の人権をめぐる世界的な運動で登場するtraffic in women、2000年代に国際組織犯罪としてtrafficking in personsへと変遷する過程を示した。 次に行政・マスメディア・市民運動(NGO)を軸に日本社会における人身取引問題の議論を検討した。第二次世界大戦後、戦災孤児や貧しい農村の子どもを対象にした児童労働問題として「いわゆる人身売買」が端緒となり、赤線地帯の問題、1980年代後半から東・東南アジア女性の強制売春という女性の人権問題としての「人身売買」、2000年代には国際社会で優先課題となった国際組織犯罪という視点が加わり、日本社会で「トラフィッキング」「人身取引」が可視化される過程を示した。さらに、ここ数年、日本人少女を対象にした児童売春や「技能実習生」問題が新たな人身取引として捉えられはじめた背景についても言及した。 これらの検討を通じて、日本において人身取引が国内外の様々な文脈を通じて問題化されてきた過程と、現在も人身取引問題をめぐる境界線が常に揺れ動いている点を論じた。
 In December 2000, the United Nations adopted “the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime” and its three protocols: Trafficking Protocol, Smuggling Protocol and Illicit Manufacturing Protocol. Until the Trafficking Protocol appeared, the term “Trafficking” had not been defined in international law, despite its incorporation in a number of international legal agreements. International society and each government have agreed to prohibit and eliminate trafficking in persons, and the Japanese government also started the National Action Plan against Trafficking in Persons in 2004. In Japan, trafficking in persons has been known as an issue concerning foreign women, especially from East Asia and Southeast Asia, who have been forced into prostitution. However, the recent discussion in Japan has been changing to a different consideration of sexual exploitation. The aim of this paper is to examine the transition of the term and concept of “trafficking in persons” in Japan as the process of its problematization. First, I consider the international context of trafficking in persons from the starting point of some international legal agreements against it. This issue started from “white slavery” in Europe at the beginning of the 20th century, and had changed to “traffic in women” as an issue of women’s human rights in the 1970s―1990s. Since 2000, “trafficking in persons” has been regarded as “transnational organized crime”, and has become a priority matter in international society these days. Next, I consider the Japanese context of trafficking in persons from the government, media and civil movements (NGOs). After WWⅡ, “so-called jinshin-baibai (human trafficking)” as child labor problems among war orphans and children in the poor rural villages paved the way for discussion of trafficking in persons. After that, it came to mean “red-light district” problems involving young women until the 1956 Anti-Prostitution Law, and it moved into consideration as “Jinshin-baibai”, involving as forced prostitution among women from East and Southeast Asian countries along with the civil movements in the 1980s ―1990s. In concert with the international context, the Japanese government has regarded “trafficking” or “jinshin-torihiki (trafficking in persons)” as transnational organized crime since the 2000s. In addition, I refer to another tendency, showing how child prostitution among Japanese young girls and “Technical Intern Trainee” problems have come to be regarded as new forms of trafficking in persons, according to the government and NGOs. Through these examinations, this paper argues that trafficking in persons in Japan have been problematized by several different contexts in national and international discussions, and its boundary line has been fluid according to “what we should recognize as trafficking in persons”.

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