紀要論文 高等教育の質保証における学習成果の位置 : 国際比較と学習成果の可視化
Quality Assurance in Higher Education : An International Comparison of Assessment Models and Visualization of Learning Outcomes

塚原, 修一  ,  濱名, 篤  ,  山口, アンナ真美

(10)  , pp.177 - 189 , 2017-03-31 , 関西国際大学教育総合研究所
ISSN:1882-9937
NII書誌ID(NCID):AA12321947
内容記述
高等教育の質保証における学習成果の位置づけについて、学習成果の評価を高等教育機関の内部質保証にゆだねる欧州のチューニング、全国的な統一試験によって学習成果の直接評価を実施するブラジル、共通の判断基準表(ルーブリック)を用いて高等教育機関が学習成果を評価する米国を比較した。制度の概要とともに実施上の課題を調査した結果として、進学率が高く、高等教育機関の多様性が大きい日本が参照してよいのは米国の方式であり、その方向にそって学習成果の可視化を推進することが課題であることが示唆された。
The aim of this paper is to make an international comparison of three assessment models for quality assurance in higher education (HE). They are: the Tuning project in Europe, the National Examination for the Assessment of Student Performance (ENADE) in Brazil and the VALUE Rubrics in the United States. Our main findings are as follows. In Europe, each country has its own quality assurance system and consequently, the curriculum and the level of academic achievement vary across countries. In 2000 the Tuning project was introduced with the purpose to make the degrees compatible. To this end, it introduced generic and subject specific competences to be used as reference points for common curricula. Contrasting with Europe, in 2004 Brazil introduced ENADE, a national exam for direct assessment of learning outcomes and is currently positioned as one of the major criteria for assessing quality. It appears that ENADE has contributed to the improvement of overall quality of HE institutions. Different from these two models, in 2007 the United States introduced the VALUE Rubrics as a means of assessing student learning outcomes in a more holistic way. This model combines the competences as found in the Tuning project and the standardized assessment with the use of the scoring sheets. We found that VALUE Rubrics appear to be the most suitable model for assessing Japanese HE institutions. When HE institutions need to enhance accountability and assure quality, to develop a universal assessment framework that can facilitate the “visualization” of learning outcomes becomes increasingly important.
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