Departmental Bulletin Paper 米国の都市内分権の形成とコミュニティ人材育成 : ロングビーチ市「Neighborhood Leadership Program」
A type of Urban Devolution in U.S. : Examination based on Long Beach (CA) Neighborhood Leadership Program


 本稿は,米国の都市内分権において,1992年より開始され全米的に大きな影響を与えてきた,体系的なコミュニティリーダー育成システム(Neighborhood Leadership Program = NLP)を中核とする米国ロングビーチ市(カリフォルニア州)のコミュニティ推進が,どのような特質をもつものとして現れてきたのかに焦点をあて,組織展開過程を明らかすることを目指した.そのために,①形成のプロセス,②カリキュラム形成の特質,③関与者にあらわれた結果についての認識の三相を検討した.その結果,次のことが明らかとなった.  第一に,NLPのカリキュラムが自己分析の手法(メディスンホイールなどリーダーとしての自己分析及び他者分析)と,また受講者自分たちのチームで地区の改善実現するための計画づくり・補助金申請・実際の改善事業着手(グラントライティングと実施)が二つの大きな柱として構築されており,その手法は,20年をかけてプログラムの中で創意工夫されて煮詰められてきたものであった.第二に,本研究において実施された,NLP修了生への質問分析から,NLP修了生が,修了後,中間値として活動コミット数および自身による活動設置数の調査(長期間)の結果より,地域での「コミュニティリーダーのネットワーク」保持の実際的位相とのかかわりが明らかとなった.そして,第三に,これらの手法が編み出されたのが,人種的な混乱やそれによるギャング問題による諸地区の荒廃をきっかけとして策定された「地区コミュニティ改善戦略」(1992年)を基に設置され,都市内分権にあって,ネイバーフッドカウンシルといった地域フレームワークを持つ形でのものとは異なったものであり,地域(地区コミュニティおよび全市)で地区改善をめざす アソシエーション・グループ(市により認定されたもの)を効果的かつ持続的に展開させる趣旨での都市内分権制度として形成されてきたことを確認した.
Since 1980s there has been Community Planning movement in U.S. cities such as Seattle (WA), Portland (OR), Tacoma(WA), Los Angeles(CA), that established institutions as to Neighborhood Council. In terms of distribution of authority, it is called “urban devolution” system which provides neighborhoods some amount and species of authorities. On the other hand Long Beach (CA, USA) established and sustained new way of urban devolution as Neighborhood Leadership Program and it has aff ected many U.S. cities as well as some cities in Japan (Yokkaichi). This article tries to clarify the institutional developing proses, focusing on what kind of characteristics and essence it has taken during its 21 years process and terms. Therefore, we examined 1) establishing process, 2) characteristics of its curriculum, 3) conscious situation of stakeholders. We acquired the following fi ndings as the result: 1) The curriculum mainly consists of two methods, Self-, and Others-analysis by “Medicine Circle”, and organized series way of planning, Grant-writing and implementation of the plan. These measures have been formed during the 20 years’ try and error in the course itself. 2) Analysis of questionnaire that was conducted by author and treats conscious situation of alumni (numbers of commitment to neighborhood improvement activities, as well as numbers of establishing own organizations etc.) shows substantial eff ect of the program for long-termly keeping the “networks of community leaders” that function as the basis of urban devolution (neighborhood improvement association approved by the city). 3) The making process of the compressive way (leadership program ‒ alumni network - neighborhood improvement association) was adopted as the measure against devastation of neighborhoods (racial issues in the most diverse city in U.S., gang problems etc.) based on “Neighborhood Improvement Strategy”(1992). And we recognized it has developed so diff erently from Neighborhood Council measures which have its basis on neighborhood-citizen “Councils” as of Seattle. We recognized that Long Beach Neighborhood Leadership Program and the comprehensive measure is set for facilitating “neighborhood improvement association” institution eff ectively and sustainably develop, as one as one kind of unban devolution,

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