Departmental Bulletin Paper 11-12 世紀のチュニス 都市共和国か君主政都市か
Tunis as autonomous city during the eleventh-to-twelfth centuries

余部, 福三

(136)  , pp.63 - 97 , 2015-03-25 , 東京経済大学人文自然科学研究会
After the disintegration of the Zīrid state as the result of their defeat at thebattle of H4 aydarān in 1052 at the hand of Egyptian Arab nomads composed of the Hilāli tribes, the cities of Tunisia regained their independence willy-nilly. Most of their independence was short-lived, but Tunis continued to be an autonomous city under H4ammādid or Zīrid suzerainty until it surrendered itself to the Muwahhid caliph,‘Abd al-Mu’min, in 1159, apart from a comparatively long interlude of Hammādid rule(1128-48).During its days of independence(autonomy in a strict sense)Tunis is normally regarded as a little monarchy under Khurāsānid lords, following the habitual Muslim view, which recognized only the caliphate or the monarchyunder caliphal suzerainty, disregarding the possible home-rule of cities under their notables or populace(patrician cities and plebeian cities, modified Weberian models). This article is an attempt to demonstrate that the first Khurāsānid ruler, ‘Abd al-Haqq, was merely head of the government of the citizens(virtually their notables)as nominal Hammādid(or Zīrid)governor, then his sons, ‘Abd al-‘Azīz and Ismā‘īl, gradually built up their power-basis, claiming their privileged position as distinct from other notables despite theirapparent observance of their father’s convention. Finally, ‘Abd al-‘Azīz’son,Ahmad, after assassinating his uncle, Ismā‘īl, succeeded in consolidating hisnearly monarchical power, probably in alliance with some friendly notables, andfounding a royal castle(qasr)within the intra-mural city, in which he established his large palace and an existing mosque.So far, popular participation in Tunisian civic affairs was hardly observable,except their defense of Tunis against Zīrid and Hammādid assaults. However, under Hammādid occupation, the plebeians of Tunis were trained as footmen and received the reviews of the governors outside the gate of the sea. After the expulsion of Hammādid governor and garrison as the result of a popular rising, the plebeians as a whole supported a Khurāsānid restoration to cope with the notables who wanted their genuine patrician domination under the leadership ofthe qādī in alliance with not the populace, but an Arab and other raiding party under the command of Muhriz, who had established their headquarter at Carthage. An inter-popular conflict also occurred between the inhabitants of the two suburbs. Finally, the qādī and Muhriz were expelled from Tunis by apopular power and a Khurāsānid leader was welcomed back to Tunis. The Khurāsānid leader, ‘Abdullāh, was probably heavily dependent upon popular support(tyranny), suppressing patrician resistance led by a new qādī, but attempted to conciliate the notables as much as possible by preserving anapparent patrician form of domination. However, it seems that the notables finally gained the upper hand when the plebeians drew back when they saw a tremendous Muwahhid army and navy under the command of Caliph ‘Abd al-Mu’min in 1159, surrendering the city and accepting the confiscation of a half of their properties.

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