57 , 2018-03-31 , 麻布大学 , Azabu University
The green grab, a type of land grab in which governments together with investors are promoting displacements of local communities, is not a rare phenomenon in tropical countries such as Indonesia. Governments have been involved in allocating state land to companies for green economic activities such as biofuel developments and biodiversity conservation projects. In recent years Indonesia has seen communities’ land claims threatened by implementations of REDD+ projects, which allow investors to purchase carbon credits from developing countries with forest stocks. A crucial tool for REDD+ projects in Indonesia is Ecosystem Restoration Concession (ERC) in which the license company is supposed to implement restoration activities. The Kampar Peninsula in Riau Province, eastern Sumatra is one of the globe’s largest contiguous tropical peat swamp forests, though hundreds of thousands of hectares of the peninsula have been assigned for logging concessions and acacia plantations since the 1970s. Although logged, the peat forests attain high biodiversity and are closely related to tenure claims by local communities living around the peninsula, who have seen their customary forests devastated by large-scale logging. They are now seeking to have their forests certified as “village forests (hutan desa)”, one of the community-based forest management schemes promoted by the Indonesian government. The struggle for their access to and control over the forest is a highly challenging. A huge area of the peninsular has been handed out in a series of ERCs, managed by subsidiary companies of the largest pulp and paper company. In this paper, the author attempts to critically review legitimacy and effectiveness of REDD+, based on his empirical on-ground findings.