「ねずみの道」の正当性――ティモール島国境地帯の密輸に見る国家と周辺社会の関係――「ねずみの道」の正当性――ティモール島国境地帯の密輸に見る国家と周辺社会の関係――AN10397258 Validity of “Mouse Trail”: Relations between Nations and Peripheral Societies in Cross-Border Smuggling on Timor Island
This paper examines illegal crossing of borders by people and things in a region of Timor bordering Indonesia. After a referendum held in 1999 to determine whether East Timor would remain part of Indonesia or become independent and a period of massive destruction and chaos wrought by Indonesian military and Timorese militias, East Timor became formally independent on the 20th of May, 2002. As a result of the independence by the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste, an international border separating East Timor from Indonesia appeared. Today, the areas along the border are used for smuggling and illegal cross-border movement, which happen on a daily basis. The routes used to cross the border are called "mouse trails (jalan tikus)."This paper focuses on the international border that separates the Indonesian territory of West Timor and Oecusse, Timor-Leste's isolated enclave inside Indonesian West Timor.The areas on both sides of the border for Indonesia and East Timor respectively are seen as peripheral areas least touched by development. The aim of this paper is to look into how people and things, by illegal means, move across this "porous" border beyond the control of the governments, how people presently engage in the new business pursuits, which became possible after the independence of East Timor, and how judgments regarding validity of such pursuits are made.