Departmental Bulletin Paper Contrasting the Nature of Peer support systems between Japan and Western nations
ピアサポートの特性に関する日本と欧米との比較

加藤, 秀男  ,  鈎, 治雄  ,  Hideo, Kato  ,  Haruo, Magari

(68)  , pp.45 - 71 , 2017-03-31 , 創価大学教育学部・教職大学院
ISSN:03855031
NCID:AA1238438X
Description
This study discusses the nature of peer support systems in Japan, comparing with the peer support in the west (UK). Peer support, a relatively new concept in Japan, is an approach that builds on the helpfulness and altruism characteristic of friendship by extending it beyond friendship to the wider peer group. This often encourages children to offer other children strong emotional and behavioural support. Since the peer support approach had been introduced to Japan, several peer support practices have been developed as unique methods, which were suited to Japanese educational and traditional systems In terms of the key features of both Japanese style peer support and the Western style peer support, some Japanese style peer support did not match the Western style peer support at all. These citizenship orientated approaches (e.g. greeting campaigns, clearing campaign, fund-raising activities, and anti-bullying drama) are unique to the Japanese peer support practices (still classified as peer support in Japan), which allows peer supporters to have a more active role as a group leader (facilitator) in peer-led activities. In this vein, two different qualities of peer support activities exist in Japan; one is based on the person-centred approach (role as a counsellor) and the other is based on citizenship orientated approach (role as a group leader). Also this study emphasises that further research is needed to expand the findings, which promote more conclusive answers. Especially, it is important to investigate children’s perspectives at a deeper level. Since peer support is a relatively new educational scheme in Japan, continued research is vital to promote good practice in schools.
本研究は、日本の小・中学校におけるピアサポートシステムの特徴を、欧米の(特に英国)ピアサポートと比較したものである。日本では、欧米のようなシステムとしてのピアサポートは、比較的新しいものである。そのため、ピアサポート導入初期(1995~ 2005 年頃)は、欧米と同様の形態のものが多くみられたが、徐々に、文化や教育制度の影響もあり、日本のピアサポートの実践は独特の発展を遂げてきた。結果的に、ロジャーズのカウンセリング・モデルを基にする欧米のピアサポートよりも、日本のピサポートは広範囲の活動を含むようになった。児童・生徒による、いじめ撲滅劇や、募金活動等はその例である。欧米のピアサポートの実践と比較しながら、日本のピアサポートの発展と特質を考えていきたい。
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