||女性研究者のためのフェローシップの創設 : アメリカ女性大学人協会（AAUW） とフェローシップ・キャンペーン
Fellowship System for Women Researchers : American Association of University Women’s Effort for the Creation of a New Fellowship System
坂本, 辰朗Tatsuro, Sakamoto
18 , 2017-03-31 , 創価大学教育学部・教職大学院
This paper aims to elucidate the reforms in the fellowship system for women researchers and the creation of a new fellowship system by the American Association of University Women (AAUW) in the 1920s and 1930s. The research questions are as follows: (1) What was the priority concern for AAUW in reforming the fellowship system? Also, who was the key person involved in creating the new fellowship system? (2) What changes resulted in the activities of the AAUW as a result of the reforms in the fellowship system and the creation of new fellowships? Did this effectively address the original concerns? Formed at the end of the nineteenth century, the AAUW established the European Fellowship for women researchers in 1888. At the time, this system supported women who had remarkably restricted opportunities for research within the United States and wished to obtain doctoral degrees at European universities. This scheme had deep historical significance. The 1920s was the first expansion period of higher education in the history of the United States. This was true also for women’s higher education opportunities, and the proportion of women amongst undergraduate students reached 47% in 1920. At this point, although women’s access to undergraduate courses came into line with men’s, the academic achievements of these women after graduation were still much lower. Therefore, it can be said that fellowships for women were an increasing necessity. However, the AAUW fellowship system was no longer fit for purpose. The National Research Council (NRC), the Guggenheim Foundation, and others had introduced innovative fellowships with high standards in terms of qualifications, remuneration, and expected outcomes. The big turning point for the AAUW’s reform of the fellowship system and the creation of a new fellowship system was when the AAUW joined the International Union of Women Colleges (IFUW). The IFUW was conceived to create international fellowships for women researchers in its member countries. Virginia Gildersleeve (1877–1965) took office as the president of the AAUW in 1927 and transformed IFUW’s ideas into AAUW’s new fellowship system. To achieve that end, it was necessary to reorganize the AAUW, which until this point had only been a loose autonomous coalition of the regional branches scattered throughout the country, into a modern organization. In order to procure its target of a 1-million-dollar fund, the AAUW headquarters divided the whole country into units, each responsible for fundraising. When each unit raised $30,000 of funding, a new fellowship program could be started. The collection of the 1-million-dollar fund took much longer than the scheduled period and was eventually completed in 1954. However, this funding campaign made the members of the AAUW aware of the importance of fellowships. The funding campaign also gave a major leadership role to the AAUW during the interwar period.