||<論説>崗銀の没落 : 清末、雲南辺境における土司通行税の変容
From Toll to Stipend : The Change of Sawbwa's toll system in the Yunnan-Burma Frontier Area during the late Qing period
コウギン ノ ボツラク シンマツ ウンナン ヘンキョウ ニオケル ドシ ツウコウゼイ ノ ヘンヨウ
29 , 2016-03-01
For a long time, the autonomous governments of the Dai（傣） people ruled by indigenous chiefs, known as Sawbwa or Tusi （土司）, existed in southwest China. However, these autonomous governments were in the process of decline and collapse in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This article also studies this process, focusing on the change of the traditional system of the tolls named Gangyin （崗銀） in the territories of Nandian, Kanai and Zhanda Sawbwas in the Tengyue Sub-Prefecture. Traditionally, the Nandian, Ganai and Zhanda Sawbwas had forced the Gangyin Toll upon Chinese merchants in their territories and, in return, they had guaranteed the safe-guarding of roads. However, in mid-nineteenth century the disorder and the civil war in China-Proper spread over this frontier area and the Gangyin Toll system was no longer effective. The authorities and merchant-gentry in Tengyue established the Trade Protection Office（保商局） to secure Yunnan-Burma trade. In 1890s, this office gained control over trade routes and Sawbwas renounced the rights to collect the Gangyin Toll instead receiving a monthly stipend also called Gangyin. After the establishment of the Custom House in Tengyue in 1902, although the payment of Sawbwas stipends continued, it was stipulated that the value of compensation for robbery in a Sawbwa's territory would be deducted from his stipend. Consequently, the financial and political autonomies of the three Sawbwas were weakened by this process.