||Bidirectional PWM Converter Integrating Cell Voltage Equalizer Using Series-Resonant Voltage Multiplier for Series-Connected Energy Storage Cells
Uno, MasatoshiKukita, Akio
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics
3090 , 2015-06 , Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
In conventional energy storage systems using series-connected energy storage cells such as lithium-ion battery cells and supercapacitors (SCs), an interface bidirectional converter and cell voltage equalizer are separately required to manage charging/discharging and ensure years of safe operation. In this paper, a bidirectional PWM converter integrating cell voltage equalizer is proposed. This proposed integrated converter can be derived by combining a traditional bidirectional PWM converter and series-resonant voltage multiplier (SRVM) that functionally operates as an equalizer and is driven by asymmetric square wave voltage generated at the switching node of the converter. The converter and equalizer can be integrated into a single unit without increasing the switch count, achieving not only system-level but also circuit-level simplifications. Open-loop control is feasible for the SRVM when operated in discontinuous conduction mode, meaning the proposed integrated converter can operate similarly to conventional bidirectional converters. An experimental charge-discharge cycling test for six SCs connected in series was performed using the proposed integrated converter. The cell voltage imbalance was gradually eliminated by the SRVM while series-connected SCs were cycled by the bidirectional converter. All the cell voltages were eventually unified, demonstrating the integrated functions of the proposed converter.