Departmental Bulletin Paper 北村謙次郎文学における白系ロシア人イメージ  ―「苦杯」を中心に―
The Image of White Russians in Kitamura Kenjirō’s “Kuhai”

韓, 玲玲  ,  Ling Ling, HAN  ,  ハン, リンリン

(11)  , pp.85 - 95 , 2015-03-31 , 総合研究大学院大学文化科学研究科
本論では、北村謙次郎の短篇小説「苦杯」を取り上げる。この作品は北村が1944年に執筆したもので、『満洲公論』に発表されると同時に、「酒頌」というタイトルで中国語に翻訳され、『芸文志』に掲載された。北村は1904年、東京に生まれた。幼少時に家族と共に関東州の大連に渡ったが、大連中学校(のちの大連一中)卒業後、東京に戻り、青山学院、国学院大学に通いながら文学修業を開始した。井伏鱒二、太宰治などと付き合いながら、『文芸プラニング』、『作品』、『日本浪曼派』など多くの雑誌と関わり、日本文壇に確かな足跡を残した。1937年、北村は満洲国の首都・新京に渡った。そこで彼は雑誌『満洲浪曼』を創刊したり、長篇小説『春聯』を執筆したりして、満洲国唯一の職業作家となった。「苦杯」は、北鉄譲渡の影響を受けた白系ロシア人の人間像を描いた物語である。葡萄酒醸造に専念したカズロフスキーは、北鉄譲渡によって商売が不調になり、自分の葡萄酒を愛飲してくれる友人イワンまで失った。しかし、彼は酒への信仰を貫き、妥協せずに憂鬱の日々を送っている。一方、北鉄譲渡によってソ連に帰国したイワンは7、8年の放浪生活の後、カズロフスキー宅に辿り着いたが、すでに酒を鑑賞する能力を失っていた。その再会の場面では、二人は、ただ葡萄酒を飲み続けているだけだった。「苦杯」が創作された1944年当時、満洲国の文化統制によって、文学者はほとんど自由に創作ができなくなっていた。この小説を通して、北村は時代に対する憤懣を語っている。創作意欲があっても小説を書くことができない、その苦しさは直ちに中国人作家たちの共鳴を呼んだ。それまでは対象に距離を置いた観察者の目で創作してきた北村は、この一篇をもって、従来の創作方法を突破した。執筆者という存在をうまく小説の中に溶け込ませ、社会から落ちぶれた白系ロシア人の心理を生き生きと表現することができた。とりわけ、一人の人物の心理動態に焦点を絞っているため、登場人物の人間性に対する観察と、それに対する深い洞察とが、この小説の大きな特質となっている。This paper discusses a short novel by Kitamura Kenjirō entitled “Kuhai” written in the year 1944. It was published in Manchu kōron and simultaneously in a Chinese translated version with the title “Jiu Song” and featured in a Chinese-language journal called Yi wen zhi, attesting the fact that by the time “Kuhai” appeared, it had already drew attention from the Chinese literary world.
Kitamura was born in the year 1904 in Tokyo. When he was a child he moved with his family to Dalian in Kwantung. Soon after completing middle school, he returned to Tokyo, where he started his literary activities while he was still a student at Aoyama Gakuin and later at Kokugakuin University. Together with literary figures like Ibuse Masuji and Dazai Osamu, he got involved with several literary journals such as Bungeipuraningu, Sakuhin, and Nihon roman-ha, and established himself in the field of Japanese literature. In the year 1937, he once again relocated to Changchun (formerly Hsinking, the capital city of Manchukuo) and there he started a journal called Manchuroman and also penned the novel Shunren. With this he became the only professional writer in Manchukuo at that time.
“Kuhai” depicts the life story of a white Russian man whose life was deeply affected by the transfer of the Chinese Eastern Railways (also known as Chinese Far East Railways or Manchurian Railways) from Russian to Japanese ownership. Kozlovck was a vintner who took thirty years to make authentic wine. Nonetheless, due to the business slowdown that resulted from the change in ownership of the Chinese Eastern Railways, his friend Ivan, who was an admirer of his wine, was reassigned back to Russia and with this he lost his good friend. Despite this, Kozlovck never compromised on his love for wine. On the other hand, his lost friend Ivan, after wandering in Russia for seven or eight years, finally made his way back to Kozlovck’s house. But, Ivan was not in a position to appreciate Kozlovck’s wine any more. When the two old friends met, they could do nothing but continue drinking.
When Kitamura wrote “Kuhai” in 1944, it was a period when there were many cultural restrictions that prevented free literary expression. Hence, it was through this short work that Kitamura expressed his discontent. In other words, he condemned the period when, despite having interest in literary activities, people were not allowed the scope to do so. This resentment was the factor that brought his work so many sympathizers in the Chinese literary world.
Kitamura, who wrote mostly from the perspective of a spectator to that date, broke away from his former writing style and dexterously fused his presence as a writer with the character of his protagonist in this small work. This helped him to express the mental state of the white Russian in the most vivid manner possible. Especially, as his focus was on the psychological state of the characters, hence his critical observations and insights into human nature are the key features of this work.

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