Departmental Bulletin Paper 異郷に「ホーム」を作る : 台湾におけるインドネシア人ムスリムの活動
“Home-making” in Taiwan : Indonesian Muslims’ Activities

小池, 誠

This is the second report of the Research Project titled “Interdisciplinary Study of MutualCultural Exchange between Japan and Indonesia,” which was supported by the Research Instituteof St. Andrew’s University from 2013 to 2015. The aim of this paper is to examine how Muslimmigrant workers from Indonesia have made their ‘homes’ in Taiwanese cities. The concepts of‘home’ and ‘home-making’ have been influenced by the discussion in Migrants of Identity :Perceptions of Home in a World of Movement edited by Rapport and Dawson (1998). In terms ofglobalization, Taiwanese society has changed drastically since the early 1990s as a result of twomajor streams of migrants. The first wave of migrants consisted of contract workers fromSoutheast Asian countries. These workers were mainly Thais and Filipinos, but they were followedby Indonesians from the 2000s and soon surpassed by them in numbers. Over 80% of theIndonesian workers, numbering 154,596 in 2010, are women who look after the elderly as caregiversand live in their employers’ homes. The second wave consisted of Chinese and SoutheastAsian women who married local Taiwanese men. Two thirds of the marriage migrants are fromMainland China, and the rest are mostly from Southeast Asian countries, such as Vietnam,Indonesia and Thailand. Also, there are Indonesian students, whose number is much less than theabove-mentioned Indonesian migrants. Most Indonesian workers and students living in Taiwanare Muslim. Based on Islamic beliefs and teachings, they have formed Muslim organizations toconduct religious and social activities aimed at mutual aid, helping other Indonesian workers facingserious problems. Worker and student organizations sometimes cooperate with each other tohold training courses for Indonesian female care workers. Focusing on two mosques in Taoyuancity, Longgang Mosque in Zhongli district and At-Taqwa Mosque in Dayuan district, this paperdiscusses how Indonesian Muslims have made their ‘homes’ despite being aliens in Taiwan.Longgang Mosque was built in 1964 by Taiwanese Muslims who originally came from Yunnan,China. One of the Indonesian Muslim organizations, FOSMIT, uses a vacant room in the mosqueto conduct its religious activities. Though the mosque is the core of Islamic identity forTaiwanese Muslims living in Zhongli, Indonesians use the mosque as their ‘home,’ where they intimatelytalk with each other in their native language and eat their favorite foods. In 2013 At-Taqwa Mosque was built by a former Indonesian worker and her Taiwanese husband, whoconverted to Islam when he got married. Many Indonesian workers donated money to build themosque. On August 23, 2014, when I interviewed some of the staff members of the mosque, aftera performance of Javanese Islamic music with rebana (a Malay tambourine), a recitation of Yasinverse from the Al-Qur’an was performed, with a total of eighteen Indonesian workers in attendance.Because most of the attendants were from East Java, at the end of the ceremony, anIslamic leader (ustad) gave an Islamic sermon in Javanese, not Indonesian. The mosque becamea ‘home’ filled with a Javanese atmosphere. Indonesian Muslims in Dayuan have succeeded inmaking their own ‘home.’

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