Departmental Bulletin Paper 現代社会の問題状況と高等教育改革への洞察─「世界への愛」とプロセス哲学を視座として─
Problems in Modern Society and Insight into The Higher Education Reform

谷口, 照三

This paper considers the "Amor Mundi and Process Philosophy", as its context, critically reviews the higher education reform that has suddenly sped up over the past 20 years, and takes account of the possibilities and challenges to higher education as an insight into living in the 21st century. The education reform has been made in view of international situations and today's social trends, aimed, conceived and implemented at developing human resources to fit into it, especially cultivating a "zest for living". I do not have any objection to the education reform, if it is related to compatibility toward social trends and life. The problems are how and from what position they understand "social" and "life", which are the foundations of the reform. Also, what does insight into the future mean for them? Regarding these points, I currently do not think that the contents of the reform are insufficient to obtain a broad understanding. In the report regarding the reform, "difficult times to predict" is cited as the reason why development of effective human resources is important. And, the report emphasizes that human resources that can fully provide their ability are necessary in any society. I feel there is something wrong with this expression. If we are considering and implementing the development of promising talent in society, the expression, "in any society" is not suitable. We should start from understanding the world where we are living using a synchronic process, which connects two diachronic processes, "past" and "future", imagining what kind of society would be ideal, and encouraging acts of sharing. In other words, it is essential that we accept the reality, not only the glory of society, but also its rigors and problems, while we view the future and ask "how and why we live here now". Here, "Amor Mundi" is the foundation. The "Amor Mundi" relates to our current views toward the past and future of our communities and the world woven by "things" including natural and artificial things. Such questioning processes based on this would be able to provide important "contexts" for education, especially higher education. By that, "education that is related to life" is really directed. Now is the time we need to reconsider this seriously. From the standpoint of "Amor Mundi and Process Philosophy," the world where we are living is expressed as a "liquid modernity", "risk society" and "reflexive modernization", and a mutually mediated society of individualization and cooperation. This is viewed as a valuable society which should be aimed for. In this paper, I have explained the necessity of contextualization in higher education. Also, in this paper, for the realization of "education related to life", the "rhythm and process of education", which philosopher A. N. Whitehead emphasized, is focused on and its importance is pointed out. According to him, the education process consists of macro processes, such as the "stage of romance", "stage of precision", and "stage of generalization". Three other micro processes are embedded in each macro stage. There is a rhythmic transition from freedom to "training and self-discipline" and to freedom again. The last step of the macro process is higher education, however it must be noted that there is a subsequent process. It is the stage of lifelong education. It is important to view higher education, especially university education as a starting point to lifelong education, and is also a "platform" that can be returned to. In this paper, taking the above viewpoints into consideration, I pointed out the necessity of redesigning the higher education reform according to the "stage of romance", "stage of precision", and "stage of generalization", while paying attention to the contexts and change in density, range and focus of problems. However, I was not able to closely examine these matters. It is challenge for my future.

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