Departmental Bulletin Paper Pictures from Italy─美と宗教に関するディケンズの思想─(高成廈教授・寺木伸明教授 退任記念号)
Pictures from Italy :Dickens' Thoughts on Beauty and Religion(Special Issue Dedicated to Professor KO Sung-Ha,Professor TERAKI Nobuaki)

吉田, 一穂

Pictures from Italy is Dickens' travel book based on the letters he wrote to John Forster during a year spent with his family in Genoa from July 1844 to July 1845. The book describes their travels through France en route to Italy and through Northern Italy. Dickens comments on the places and people he saw, on art, and on the Roman Catholic Church, vigorously expressing his belief that the poverty and oppression in Italy was largely due to the influence of the Church. `Picturesque' is used to show the artistic concept and style of the late 18th and early 19th century, characterized by a preoccupation with architecture and landscape in pictorial combination with each other. In Britain, the picturesque was defined as an aesthetic quality marked by pleasing variety, irregularity, asymmetry, and interesting textures ; medieval ruins in a natural landscape were thought to be picturesque. The 19th century was the Golden Age of landscape painting in Europe and America. Three aesthetic concepts established during the Romantic era divided the natural world into categories : the Pastoral, the Picturesque, and the Sublime. The first two represented Nature as a comforting source of physical and spiritual sustenance. The last, as articulated by Edmund Burke (1729-97) in A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757), refers to the thrill and danger of confronting untamed Nature and its overwhelming force. In Pictures from Italy, Dickens uses the word `picturesque' in various descriptions. He not only uses the word to describe beautiful landscapes, but also to describe the sublime beauty of ruins and nature. His consciousness of beauty bears a resemblance to the consciousness of beauty of Edmund Burke, because both of them represent the beauty of untamed Nature and its overwhelming force. At the same time, Dickens shows his views on religion, which has been a topic of considerable controversy. The novels are clear about the religious attitudes and practices that Dickens disliked. He frequently attacked Evangelical and dissenting pietism. He also disliked formalistic religion, criticizing the Puseyites for their emphasis on ritual, and Roman Catholicism for its superstitious mummery. Dickens also criticizes Roman Catholic customs : he censures the superficiality of the procession, and the superstition of the worshipper. Martin Luther (1483_1546) strongly disputed the claim that freedom from God's punishment for sin could be purchased with money. Dickens seems to agree with Luther's opinion, but he looks on Ordo Fratrum Minorum Capuccinorum favorably. He attaches greater importance to the practice of neighborly lovethan to form in Christianity.

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