学位論文 Development and Evaluation of a Web-Based Media Literacy Education Program with Video Editing Simulator

苗, 琳娟  ,  Miao, Linjuan

pp.1 - 160 , 2015-12-18 , The University of Electro-Communications
内容記述
In this study, a web-based media literacy education program including an online video editing simulator (VES) was developed. The VES is an online virtual platform that can be used for creative practice through simulating the video editing and creation process. A frame and montage schema was proposed to organize the structure of this program to teach students how all media messages are constructed. The effectiveness of this web-based program in improving participants’ media literacy was then tested through an evaluative experiment. In the first chapter of the study, the history and current status of media literacy education are surveyed. The meaning of conducting media literacy education through web-based learning is explained, and the challenge of providing a creative practice platform in a web-based system is clarified. After that, the research purpose of this study is articulated. In chapter 2, previous studies and projects related to this study are reviewed and analyzed. First, definitions and teaching approaches of media literacy are discussed from different perspectives. Then, the inadequacy of creative practice in web-based media literacy education projects is explained through an analysis of previous similar projects. The importance of frame (selecting shots spatially) and montage (connecting shots temporally) is made explicit through analyzing the construction process of film. By way of theoretical foundation, we propose to generalize the concepts of frame and montage from the process of making a film to the selection and connection of general media information. In chapter 3, the frame and montage schema, developed from the generalization of frame and montage (as selection and connection of information), is proposed as a means to structure the teaching materials of this program. The construction process of visual media contents is explained using this schema, accompanied by the provision of a creative practice platform through the VES. With a certain level of abstraction, the frame and montage schema can also be applied to the construction process of other types of media messages and general media information. It is suggested that the frame and montage schema can function effectively to cover an overall understanding of media literacy despite limits of teaching time and materials. In chapter 4, the video editing simulator (VES) is described. The VES is an online virtual platform for simulating video editing and creation processes. Through the VES, students manage the frame (selection of shots) and montage (connection of shots) to edit and create videos. In this study, the VES is developed as the creative practice portion of the educational program. In addition, learning support functions such as chatting and sharing videos created by other students are provided in the VES. One of the original features of this study is the incorporation of creative practice using the VES into a web-based media literacy education program. In chapter 5, details of this web-based media literacy education program are described. The program contains four lessons: (1) television and the basis for media literacy, (2) frame, (3) montage, and (4) creative practice using the VES. Each lesson includes five steps: (a) suggested questions, (b) basic explanation, (c) advanced explanation, (d) extension to media literacy, and (e) exercises. Lessons 2 and 3, on frame and montage, correspond to the creative practice on the VES in that the information learned in lessons 2 and 3 is applied to the creation of videos. In step (a), suggested questions, students answer several questions related to media issues. Next, in steps (b) and (c), they study related content, comparing the explanations provided by the teaching materials to their own answers. This interactive learning process was expected to deepen students’ understanding through reflection and comparison. In chapter 6, evaluative experiment is described. This program was implemented with two groups of participants enrolled in a media literacy course for third-year university students. Before and after their participation in the program, the students’ understanding of media literacy was verified through administration of a pre-test and post-test. Also, participants were asked to evaluate the program subjectively by completing a survey questionnaire. The pre-test and post-test used the same questions, so as to equalize their difficulty and cover all knowledge elements in the program structure. In chapter 7, evaluation results are reported and discussed. The participants’ improvement from the pre-test to the post-test suggests that this program is generally effective in increasing students’ understanding of media literacy. Furthermore, effects of the program structure and the frame/montage schema are confirmed through improvement in each knowledge element, as well as in the correlation between improvement on each element and total improvement. With the exception of step (d), extension to media literacy, the educational effect of all knowledge elements within the program was confirmed to some extent. In addition, the questionnaire replies indicated generally positive subjective evaluations of the program, including interest in the teaching materials, students’ perceived improvement in understanding media literacy, and learning effects of the program. In chapter 8, conclusions and suggestions for future research are presented. The web-based media literacy education program and its effects are summarized. Prospective future research areas include improving this program, evaluating it with a control group, extensions to other types of media messages, other perspectives for media literacy education, and media literacy education in China.
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