Departmental Bulletin Paper ドイツ・ライプチヒ学派トレーニング科学の成立過程に関する研究(4)
ドイツ ライプチヒ ガクハ トレーニング カガク ノ セイリツ カテイ ニ カンスル ケンキュウ 4
An Introductory Theoretical Approach on the Developments of the Applied Training Science in the GDR(4)

綿引, 勝美

33pp.455 - 463 , 2018-02-15 , 鳴門教育大学 , Naruto University of Education
The aim of this paper as a fourth literature review is to discuss the theoretical problem, especially central categories of the independent applied training science(Trainingslehre − Trainingswissenschaft)in the GDR. Sport training is connected to objectives that are related to the development of sport performance capacity or to the presentation of sport performance, especially in athletic competition. Chapter 2 “Performance structure, performance capacity, and performance development” in the textbook “Trainingslehre−Trainingswissenschaft” (2014)discusses central categories of training science. In this article, a theme called the development of sport performance is discussed. The standard of sport performance is raised primarily by training and competition. Sports training causes various reactions in the body which represent demands on it. Load can be seen as the sum of all external events affecting a person which change physical and psychological functions. Because of that the sporting load leads to an internal load of the total organism. All high and repetitive psychophysical demands must be interrupted by breaks. The length of the break is determined by the amount of residual tiredness. The successful handling of load always means an increase in the degree of load tolerance. The deciding factor for higher load tolerance in sport is the adaptation achieved through training, which requires longer than generally thought. Before adaptation takes place(after four to six weeks)various phases of changed state in the body must be gone through. These three phases are : Current adjustment, Regeneration(Restoration)and Adaptation. The aim of the organism’s adaptation is to reduce internal taxing and to make use of the taxed functions to deal with load as economically as possible. Before adaptation can take place, the organism has to be forced to make regular adjustments in its functional systems over longer periods of time. The structure which is most taxed in sport and also the first to adapt is the muscle. With a mass of 23 to 28kg the muscular system is the largest organ. Training of biomotor abilities is directed to the muscular system first. According to current findings, adaptation takes place gradually and can be divided into four stages 1st stage of adaptation : changes in the movement programme 2nd stage of adaptation : increase in size of the energy stores 3rd stage of adaptation : optimization of regulated systems and structures 4th stage of adaptation : co−ordination of systems influencing performance

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