It has been a long time since the issue of academic ability attracted significant attention. Asfor the issue of academic ability, a debate in academic ability decline and internationalacademic ability investigations (PISA and TIMSS) and national academic ability investigationsplayed a key role in the discussion. However, on the other hand, it was pointed out as aproblem that“ child poverty” and household economic power became the ruling factor of theachievement of academic ability. In other words, there is a need to respond to“ differencebetween hierarchies of academic ability” not“ general decreases of academic ability standard”. Itis necessary to consider how to guarantee academic ability of children taking into accountsocial inequity disadvantage. Dowa education is an educational practice that focuses on guarantee of children's academicability. Dowa education was provided around West Japan and has supported education ofBuraku children based on guarantee of academic ability and class management. Recently, it ispointed out that Dowa education has universality. This paper focuses on“ academic ability ofliberation” described by Dowa education.“ Academic ability of liberation” includes (1)consciousness of liberation, (2)collectivism, (3)recognition for science and art. This paperanalyzed the course of study from these three viewpoints. As a result, this paper clarified that it could promote (1)consciousness of liberation in thespecial subject morality, (2)collectivism in the special activities,(3)recognition for science and artin the social studies. In addition“, academic ability of liberation” is a structure that promotes (1)consciousness of liberation based on (2)collectivism, while using cognition of science and art. “Academic ability of liberation” has the possibility that children can guarantee academicability by bringing up self-esteem. This paper clarified that it was different from the structurethat had been thought about in conventiona“l academic ability of liberation”. The future problem is empirical research at schools. It is thought that complexity anddiversification of the social economic background advances from now on. Schools shouldsucceed to a tradition and experience of Dowa education. Furthermore, while flexibly applyingDowa education, schools should perform a variety of educational practices to guarantee academic ability by raising children’s self-esteem.