紀要論文 第三のカラー・ラインと「日本人」カテゴリ : <帝国>の振る舞いコードの共有度合いによるヒエラルキー
Aversive Racism and “Japanese” Category : Hierarchy Based on Degree of Behavioral Code Sharing Across Empire

前田, 悟志

36pp.1 - 24 , 2015-12 , 首都大学東京・都立大学社会学研究会
NII書誌ID(NCID):AN00289270
内容記述
グローバリゼーションにより人々の感覚や振る舞いは国境や民族集団の垣根を越えて通約は進んでいるのだろうか.「待避的人種差別」あるいは「第三のカラー・ライン」は生物的差異による古典的な人種差別と異なり,規範や振る舞いの非共有による社会的分離で,政治的,経済的な境界線はのり越えても私的領域での関係性への受け入れには障壁が残されているという脱工業化社会の境界である.本研究では「日本人」が「西洋圏」において経験する境界線を追った.J-Stage上の文献を中心に,他には関連の著名な諸文献をあたった.知見は三つ.①中国の台頭により「西洋圏」における「日本人」への待遇は軟化した事例が目立った.②日本がアジアからのローンプレーヤーでなくなった.③エスニック・ヒエラルキーの変化のように見えなくもないが,「西洋」視点という構図は変化無し.三番目の知見は「西洋圏人」と豊富な接触をもつ「日本人」男女12名を対象にして彼らの「西洋圏人」とのつながりの内容を聞き取った面接調査から導いた.結果,日本人を対象とした待避的人種差別はこれまでの学術研究のなかでは適応不全として扱われてきた可能性が示唆された.これにより「日本人」を「西洋圏」における待避的差別の対象として扱い,情緒的距離感の変化を追うことで,グローバル秩序の質的変化を明らかにする意義が確認された.今後は他の方法でもこの目的に迫る価値があると言える.
Are common sense and behavioral codes becoming more commensurable across national and ethnic boundaries as globalization advances? Aversive racism, also known as the third color line, is a different concept than the classical understanding of racism, which is based on biological differences. It is a social boundary based on behavioral codes and differences in social norms. It arose in the post-industrial globalized society and demarcates peoples in personal settings even after political and economic boundaries are overcome. This research pursued subjective experiences that Japanese people undergo in “Western” societies. The literature review was made mainly on those from the J-Stage platform and well-known literature from other sources. Based on the literature review and incorporation of data retrieved from interviews conducted separately, three findings were derived: (i) reflecting the rise of China, the “Western” attitude towards “Japanese” people might have relented; (ii) Japan is no longer the lone player from the East in the West; and (iii) the basic structural frame of ethnic hierarchy has not changed in terms of the Western-centric perspective. The third finding was drawn based on empirical qualitative research involving 12 interviews with Japanese men and women who have rich experience dealing with “Western” people. The interviews focused on their relational fitness with “Westerners”. The results suggest that the arrays of previous research which labeled certain behavior as “cultural unfitness” or failure of “cultural adaptation” described a phenomenon that other people called “aversive racism” or “new racism”. This new racism, which the “Japanese” occasionally face, sheds light on the dynamics of ethnic hierarchy that otherwise might be obscured. Therefore, more attention and further developments in this line of research is necessary.
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