Metacognition plays important roles in the students’ academic achievement. This articlediscusses some instruction methods and their effects on learning processes in terms ofmetacognition based on recent reports concerning teaching-learning processes in aJapanese classroom. In order to promote learners’ metacognitive process, the intervention in their strategy uses, particularly in their perceptions of the usefulness of the strategy, is often effective. Furthermore, researches indicates that the effects of metacognitive instructions vary with individual. Cooperative learning which emphasizes social interaction between students and their active behavior is also one of the effective learning methods from the point of view of metacognition. However, it becomes clear that teacher’s adequate guidance and intervention are crucial to optimize the students’ achievement throughthe cooperative process.