文部科学省グローバルCOEプログラム 関西大学文化交渉学教育研究拠点 ［東アジアの歴史と動態］ Even with the changes of usage of energy resources in early modern times, such as relatively new fuels like coal, oil and gas, charcoal continued to remain the main fuel used by ordinary people in Japan from the late 19th century to the early 20th century. In Korean Peninsula, which was a colony of Japan from that time, Koreans did not use charcoal as fuel for everyday life much. But as Japanese moved to the Korean Peninsula and the Government-General encouraged the charcoal industry and production, charcoal was produced in large quantities and exported abroad, especially to Japan proper. Korean Peninsula became a production site that provided a large quantity of charcoal to Japan and played an important role in ensuring Japan’s fuel supply until the end of the World War II. This article aims to clarify the history of development and historical significance of the charcoal industry in Korean Peninsula by focusing on the Japanese materials.