近代中日の遣外使節団とお雇い外国人の助言 : バーリンゲーム使節団と岩倉使節団の場合近代中日の遣外使節団とお雇い外国人の助言 : バーリンゲーム使節団と岩倉使節団の場合AA12327433 The Modern East Asian Missions to the West and their Western Advisers : The Cases of he Burlingame Mission and the Iwakura Mission
文部科学省グローバルCOEプログラム 関西大学文化交渉学教育研究拠点 ［東アジアの思想と構造］ China signed the Treaties of Tianjin with UK, the U.S.A, France and Russia in 1858. In the same year, Japan also signed the treaties of Ansei with the U.K., the U.S.A, Russia, France and the Netherlands. The treaties signed by China and Japan are termed unequal treaties because they include consular jurisdiction, agreed tariffs, and one-sided MFN status. In the 1860s, both China and foreign powers turned from confrontation to co-operation. The West hoped that China would dispatch an envoy to the West so as to promote China’s modernization, and China also hoped to amend the unequal treaties. Almost at the same time, Japan started the Meiji Restoration, and she actively dispatched Mission to the West in order to amend the unequal treaties. In this context, both nations consulted with foreign advisers, and the foreign advisers also made constructive suggestions. Robert Hart came to China as a British diplomat at first, subsequently he joined as official into the Chinese Government and helped in various way to establish the China's Imperial Maritime Custom Service (IMCS). From 1863 to 1911 he served as the Inspector-General in the IMCS. One of his contributions is to promote the modern Chinese Mission to the Western powers. Anson Burlingame was born in New Berlin of the State New York in 1820. From 1862 to 1867 he was as first Minister of the United States in Beijing. During his tenure he worked for the Co-operative Policy and developed the US-China relation in a positive way. When he retired in 1867, he was appointed by the Chinese Government, as a envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to head a first modern diplomatic Mission of China to the Western Powers. He contributed to the conclusion of the Burlingame-Seward Treaty of 1868. This treaty is the first equality treaty that China gained in the modern Chinese history. Guido H. F. Verbeck was born in Zeist, the Netherlands in1830 and went to the United States when he was 22. After he graduated form the Auburn Theology in the State of New York, he was ordained as a missionary of Dutch Reformed Church in America and came to Nagasaki as one of the first Protestant missionaries to Japan in 1859. He devoted himself to establishing modern Japan in the late 19th century, subsequently attaining fame as an Adviser to the Meiji Government, especially playing a big role in case of Structuring the Iwakura Mission. This paper is to compare and consider the different influence and function between the three western advisers, based on the dispatch of the Burlingame Mission and the Iwakura Mission, in order to find out the different attitudes and implications of the modernization process between Japan and China in the late 19th century.