Departmental Bulletin Paper 明治時期日本勳章制度與光緒年間清國寶星制度的形成
The Formation of the Medal System in Meiji Japan and Late Qing

王, 君強

Description
The Japanese system of awarding medals for meritorious service originated in the Meiji Period. The Qing Dynasty also introduced a similar system at roughly the same time. The 'medals system' is a product of the eastward dissemination of western learning, which ultimately led to the breakup of native honor systems in East Asia. Among westerners especially, the awarding of medals had a positive function in modern history. The Japanese medal system grew out of the honors system. The medal system of the late Qing however was created in order to reward foreigners with a good record of service to the Qing. This system consisted of eleven ranks of five grades. Later on this system was also applied to the Chinese themselves, thus becoming similar with the medal systems of other countries.
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https://kuir.jm.kansai-u.ac.jp/dspace/bitstream/10112/11540/1/KU-1100-20171130-14.pdf

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