Shimoda Utako (1852-1936) and Tsuda Umeko (1864-1929) were pioneers and important representatives of Japanese women's education in the Meiji and Taisho eras. Both women were engaged in numerous educational activities, including writing and teaching. However both differed greatly in their styles. Shimoda Utako and Tsuda Umeko established 'Jissen Girls' School' (now Jissen Women's University) and 'Joshi Eigaku Juku' (now Tsuda University) respectively. Based on these two schools' educational principles and their process of establishment, this dissertation will compare the educational policies put forth by the Meiji government with the changes of thinking relating to social education, in order to investigate the relationship between women's education and the Meiji government. Namely, it will assess the degree of participation and the impact of the Meiji government on these two female educators' development and their educational causes. The relationship between these two female educators and the Meiji state shall also be analyzed. This dissertation will focus on the early period of the establishment of schools (the late 19th century), when female educators generally complied with the needs of the Meiji state.