研究ノート The concept of Ren （humanity, benevolence） is one of the central ideas discussed in the Analects of Confucius. Why be benevolent? And how do we become benevolent? These are central questions in Confucianism, which is why Confucius made constant mention of Ren and repeatedly tried to explain it. Later interpretations of Ren varied greatly, and a highly original interpretation was made by the Japanese Confucian scholar Ogyū Sorai （1666-1728）. This paper looks at Ogyū Sorai’s interpretation of Ren as seen in his Rongochō, and compares his views with those of the Song dynasty scholar Zhuxi （1130-1200） as well as those of the Kyoto based Japanese Confucian Itō Jinsai （1627-1705）. Through a comparison of these various views of Ren, it is hoped that Sorai’s unique contribution shall become clearer.