研究ノート Charcoal has a long history as a fuel in many parts of the world. Japan has an especially long tradition of using charcoal as a fuel, and it has proved an indispensable part of daily since ancient times. Japan may be thought of as a “Charcoal Country”． In the modern era, especially after the Meiji period, charcoal production in Japan was improved by the advance of charcoal production technology. However due to a shortage of supplies and labor, Japan had for a time also imported charcoal from Hangzhou in China. Unfortunately little research has been done so far on the type of charcoal produced in Hangzhou, or on the export trade to Japan. This paper looks at charcoal usage in Hangzhou, the type as well as the origin of the Hangzhou charcoal, and the distribution of Hangzhou charcoal in the suburbs. The export of Hangzhou charcoal to Japan is also touched upon. The main primary sources looked at are publications of the Japanese government, such as the official government gazette, as well as the Hangchow Trade Returns of the Chinese Maritime Customs Historical Material, focusing on the reports found in Shun Pao.