東アジアの思想と構造 Yuan Shikai attempted to revive the Chinese monarchy in late 1915. This unwise act aroused the attention of the major western powers, England, France, Russia, America, as well as that of Japan. The result of Yuan’s bold move depended on the attitude of these major powers. This was at a time when Europe was embroiled in the First World War. European countries like England, France, Russia, and Germany simply did not possess the time to become heavily involved in China’s internal affairs. Japan however took advantage of this situation in order to gain more new rights in China. During the course of this revivalist movement, Japan constantly changed its attitude towards the revival of the monarchy. Furthermore, Japan resorted to all kinds of measures in order to intervene in the internal affairs of China, in an attempt to promote a pro-Japanese government in Beijing.