東アジアの思想と構造 It is generally considered that the eastward expansion of German influence in Japan began in the Edo period. The Japanese first became aware of Germany through the introduction of Rangaku studies （“Dutch Learning”）. At that time, German doctors, through their exchange with their Japanese counterparts,popularized the accomplishments of western medicine that had been developing since the European Renaissance. The Japanese who studied Dutch learning in order to learn western medicine, may have also been exposed to the German language through Dutch language texts. Dutch Learning in the Edo Period notonly promoted the development of modern western medicine in Japan at the time, but also laid the foundations for the introduction of German science during the Bakumatsu and early Meiji periods. This paper discusses the early process of cultural interaction between Japan and Germany in the Edo Period based on Dutch Learning, in order to demonstrate the influence of German scholarship on the modernization of Japan.