||超越 vs. ここ・今
Transcendence versus Hic et Nunc
296 , 2016-04-01 , 関西大学東西学術研究所
Sartre and Camus were both active in the Resistance against Nazi Germany during World War II, and in the postwar era were seen as like-minded Existentialist writers. Both expressed understanding and respect for each other’s work, and each contributed articles to journals the other was editing. But this period of amity eventually came apart. This was because contradictions began to emerge in their interpretations of “totalitarianism,” originating in differing views of fascism that had once been held together simply by a shared determination to resist Nazi Germany. In other words, in their understanding and acceptance of the concepts of fascism and communism, communism and totalitarianism, as well as their perception and judgment concerning the brutality of the Soviet totalitarian system they came to differ significantly. In the 1940s and 1950s, French intellectuals engaged in a lively exchange of opinions with regard to the nature of the communist system in the Soviet Union. The tendencies of the time naturally drew Sartre and Camus into debate with one another.This paper begins with a comparison and investigation of the position of these two writers with regard to the totalitarian system, and offers an analysis of the nature of their historical consciousness and concept of progress. It then examines characteristics of the view of humankind evinced by each in their fiction and criticism, exploring the grounds of their differences of opinion.