東アジアの思想と構造 Japanese scholars began their studies of Chinese drama in the Meiji period. After the Meiji Restoration, Japanese academia became significantly influenced by Western academic methods, and as a result of this aspects of folk culture such as drama became an important object of study in the field of Chinese literary studies. Masaru Aoki （1887－1964）was a famous researcher of Chinese drama in Japan’s modern period. Through Aoki’s writings and the recollections of his family and close friends, this paper shall attempt to outline the contours of Aoki’s Chinese drama research. Through an analysis of Aoki’s major works （Shina kinsei gikyoku shi）, the author will clarify the approach and problems that, are characteristic of Aoki’s drama research.