文部科学省グローバルCOEプログラム 関西大学文化交渉学教育研究拠点 東アジアの思想と構造 In the mid and late Ming Dynasty, Confucian scholars pay a keen interest on exploring the issues of 〝death", "reincarnation", "causality" and "retribution". There are both similarities and differences between Ming and Song Confucians. Song Confucians believe that the universe is an intrinsic unity of the whole and has eternal vitality. Ming Confucians inherit this idea,which allows them to clearly understand the integrity and continuity of the universe. However, there are disagreements between the confuciens of the two dynasties on some other issues. Song Confucians believe that the soul will eventually disappear after the person dies. They also oppose the Buddhist idea of reincarnation and avoid talking about issues related to death and retribution. ln these respects, the Ming Confucians take the opposite stance. However,their position is not individualistic, but focused on Confucian family ethics. They not only maintain the characteristics of Confucianism, but also keep consistent with the idea of Buddhism and Toism.