Journal Article Sulfur Chemical State and Chemical Composition of Insoluble Substance in Soft Rime, Hard Rime, and Snow Collected in Remote and Rural Areas in Japan Using Wavelength-dispersive X-ray Fluorescence

Imai, Shoji  ,  Yamamoto, Yuhei  ,  Yamamoto, Takashi  ,  Kodama, Kenji  ,  Nishimoto, Jun  ,  Kikuchi, Yoichi

34 ( 5 )  , pp.589 - 598 , 2018-05-10 , The Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
Using a commercially available wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) spectrometer, the chemical composition and S-Kα spectrum of rime and snow samples collected in remote and rural areas of Japan were measured with a membrane filter sample technique to investigate the long-range transport of aerosol from the East Asian continent. Insoluble substances are derived into three categories: 1) conventional mineral origin (crustal substance), 2) urban dust origin (Fe-Zn-Ca) and 3) coal origin (S-As). Assuming that (i) S(VI) was found as a plaster-like substance in hard rime, depending on [Ca], and that (ii) S(-II) was found as non-crustal sulfur compounds, fractions of S(VI) and S(-II) in rime could be calculated as 35 ± 6 and 66 ± 7% by [Ca], which is in agreement with 32 ± 8 and 68 ± 8%, respectively, by the chemical shift of the S-Kα line. During a one-day meteorological event that included the accumulation of both rime and snow, differences to the snow-like content corresponded to characteristics typical of rime since the chemical compositions of rime also includes the composition of the snow. The fractions of 22 ± 12% of S(VI) and 76 ± 12% of S(-II), respectively, were found in rime. The fraction of S(-II) decreased from the Chugoku district towards the Shikoku district. Along the coast of the Japan Sea, the fraction of S(-II) decreased from Chugoku district toward the Northeast Japan. It can be proposed that other analytical techniques of S, Al, and Ca in that are favorable to this fractionation.

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