Departmental Bulletin Paper 生活保護自立支援プログラムが構想した自立の三類型 : 釧路モデルを基盤とした総合的・継続的・寄り添い型支援への展開

内田, 充範

11pp.99 - 109 , 2018-02-28 , 山口県立大学
本稿では、まず、2005年3月に示された生活保護自立支援プログラムの基本方針における自立の三類型である経済的自立、日常生活自立、社会生活自立の捉え方が、生活保護自立支援プログラム実施以前の釧路モデルの実践を基盤としていることをモデル事業の構築過程から事業内容及び利用者への効果を分析することで明らかにした。続いて、川崎市「だいJOBセンター」による生活困窮者自立支援制度の実践から、自立の三類型を総合的で継続的な寄り添い型支援へと展開させる中で継承していることを明らかにした。そのうえで、現行の生活保護自立支援プログラム及び生活困窮者自立支援制度の今後の課題を以下のとおり指摘した。生活保護自立支援プログラムの内容が経済的自立に偏重しているという実態がある。日常生活自立及び社会生活自立に関するプログラムは、中長期的な視点から継続的な支援を展開するもので時間及び労力を要するが、自立の三類型を示したプログラム創設時の構想を具現化するためにはプログラム内容を質量ともに充実させていくべきと考える。 また、生活困窮者自立支援制度の課題として、就労準備支援事業の後の就職までの支援プロセスを明確にする必要がある。自立相談支援事業として開始された支援が就労準備支援へとつながり、就労支援を経て就労開始となり、さらには、就労継続支援へとつながる継続的寄り添い型支援が、生活困窮者自立支援制度の中で、一体的に実施されなければならないと考える。
Abstract: It is understood that a fundamental policy of self-support program in the livelihood protection system, which was announced in March 2005, was to achieve financial and social selfreliance, and self-reliance in daily life. This paper clarifies 1) that by analyzing the process of constructing model business, the content of a business, and effect on the users, this paper has clarified that the aforementioned understanding was based on practices of the Kushiro model implemented before the 2005 self-support program, and 2) that through a self-reliance support program for the needy that was implemented by“ Daiob Center” in Kawasaki City, those three types of self-reliance were being observed during the development into comprehensive, continuous, and overall support program. In addition, the study points out possible future challenges with implementing the existing selfreliance support program in the livelihood protection system and the self-reliance support program for the needy as given below. The current situation shows that the self-reliance support program too much focuses on financial support. A lot of time and efforts are required to implement the support programs for financial selfreliance and self-reliance in daily life because those supports should be rendered from a mediumto-long term perspective. It is apparent, however, that the program content needs to be enriched both qualitatively and quantitatively in order to realize the three types of self-reliance that were envisioned at the time of creation of the support program. One of the issues in the self-reliance support program for the needy is to clarify the support process for the participants who completed the preparation for employment to be actually employed. Those who received a consultation for self-reliance should be supported to prepare for employment, and those prepared for employment should be supported to be employed and start to work. And those who started the work should be supported to be able to hold on to that work. It is believed that such overall support should be rendered in the self-reliance support system for the needy.

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