Thesis or Dissertation Differential therapeutic effects of atomoxetine and methylphenidate in childhood attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy.

Nakanishi, Yoko  ,  Ota, Toyosaku  ,  Iida, Junzo  ,  Yamamuro, Kazuhiko  ,  Kishimoto, Naoko  ,  Okazaki, Kosuke  ,  Kishimoto, Toshifumi

11p.Article No.26 , 2017-05-12 , BioMed Central
BACKGROUND: The stimulant methylphenidate (MPH) and the nonstimulant atomoxetine (ATX) are the most commonly-prescribed pharmacological treatments for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the drug-specific mechanism of action on brain function in ADHD patients is not well known. This study examined differences in prefrontal hemodynamic activity between MPH and ATX in children with ADHD as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) using the Stroop color-word task. METHODS: Thirty children with ADHD participated in the present study. We used 24-channel NIRS (ETG-4000) to measure the relative concentrations of oxyhemoglobin in the frontal lobes of participants in the drug-naïve condition and those who had received MPH (n = 16) or ATX (n = 14) for 12 weeks. Measurements were conducted every 0.1 s during the Stroop color-word task. We used the ADHD RS-IV-J (Home Version) to evaluate ADHD symptoms. RESULTS: Treatment with either MPH or ATX significantly reduced ADHD symptoms, as measured by the ADHD RS-IV-J, and improved performance on the Stroop color-word task in terms of number of correct words. We found significantly higher levels of oxyhemoglobin changes in the prefrontal cortex of participants in the ATX condition compared with the values seen at baseline (pre-ATX). In contrast, we found no oxyhemoglobin changes between pre- and post-treatment with MPH. CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that MPH and ATX have differential effects on prefrontal hemodynamic activity in children with ADHD.
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